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The recent controversy over Iran's nuclear programme represents an early and important test for a distinctively European approach to addressing concerns about suspected programmes for the development of weapons of mass destruction. Against this background, this report brings together European and Iranian perspectives on a range of security- and proliferation-related issues that have a bearing on diplomatic efforts to resolve the controversy. The contributors describe the discussions under way between Europe, Iran and the International Atomic Energy Agency aimed at clarifying the scope and nature of Iran's nuclear activities. They examine the development of the European Union's strategy to combat the spread of WMD; Iran's evolving security and defence structures and policies, including Iranian thinking about deterrence-based defence strategies and the requirements for credibly implementing them; and the internal dynamics of security policy decision making in Iran. The report highlights some of the problems and possibilities inherent in the EU's efforts to implement a more targeted, multifunctional strategy to prevent WMD proliferation.
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1. The controversy over Iran's nuclear programme
Shannon N. Kile
2. The evolution of Iran's national security doctrine
Seyed Kazem Sajjadpour
3. The EU Strategy against Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction
4. The nuclear controversy in the context of Iran's evolving defence strategy
5. The process of national security decision making in Iran
Heidar Ali Balouji
6. The EU and Iran: towards a new political and security dialogue
Gerrard Quille and Rory Keane
7. Final thoughts on Iran, the EU and the limits of conditionality
Shannon N. Kile
Appendix A. The agreements between the EU and Iran
Appendix B. The EU non-proliferation clause
About the authors
Christer Ahlström, PhD (Sweden) has been deputy director of SIPRI since August 2002. Previously, he served as a deputy director in the Swedish Ministry for Foreign Affairs on issues related to disarmament and non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. He contributed to the SIPRI Yearbook in 2003 and 2004 on the issues of ballistic missile non-proliferation and withdrawal from arms control treaties, respectively.
Heidar Ali Balouji (Iran) is the resident representative in Stockholm, Sweden, of the Institute for Political and International Studies (IPIS), Tehran. He has worked for 10 years on disarmament and international security issues and has published several articles, the most recent being 'Iran's approach towards a nuclear option', Yaderny Control, summer 2003, and [Can a war on proliferation be legitimate? The case of Iraq], Mahnameh Ettelaat Syasi & Eghtesadi [Monthly on Political and Economic Information], in Oct. 2004 (in Farsi). He has finalized his PhD thesis on the WMD regimes and Iran's national security.
Rory Keane, PhD (Ireland) is a senior researcher with the International Security and Information Service (ISIS) Europe, Brussels, and a part-time consultant with the United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR). His most recent publications include 'European security and defence policy: from Cologne to Sarajevo', Global Society, vol. 19, no. 1 (Jan. 2005) and 'The partnership–conditionality binary in the Western Balkans: Promoting local ownership for sustainable democratic transition', Cambridge Review of International Affairs, vol. 18, no. 1 (July 2005). He is an expert on post-conflict peace-building and has followed Iranian politics for a number of years. His PhD is from the University of Limerick, Ireland.
Shannon N. Kile (USA) is a researcher on the SIPRI Non-proliferation and Export Controls Project, focusing on nuclear arms control and non-proliferation issues. He has contributed to numerous SIPRI publications, including chapters on nuclear arms control and non-proliferation for the SIPRI Yearbook since 1995. His recent work has concentrated on nuclear proliferation issues related to Iran and North Korea, where he has travelled regularly.
Gerrard Quille, PhD (UK) is a specialist on security and defence policy in the Policy Department of the European Parliament. At the time of writing he was director of the Programme on Non-Proliferation, Arms Control and Disarmament at ISIS Europe. He has published extensively on the EU's evolving security policy and in particular on the European Security Strategy and the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP).
Jalil Roshandel, PhD (Iran) is a visiting professor in political science at Duke University, North Carolina, USA. He received his PhD in political science from the Université des Sciences Sociales in Toulouse, France, in 1989, followed by a Certificate of Achievement in Peace Research from the International University of Oslo, Norway, in 1989. He has held research and teaching positions at several institutions, including the University of Tehran and the IPIS in Iran, the Copenhagen Peace Research Institute (COPRI) in Denmark, the Middle East Technical University in Turkey, the Stanford University Centre for International Security and Cooperation (CISAC), USA, and most recently the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), USA.
Seyed Kazem Sajjadpour (Iran) is a former general director of the IPIS in Tehran and currently a senior fellow there.
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN 0-19-929087-3 - hardback, 152 pp.
ISBN 0-19-929088-1 - paperback, 152 pp.
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